Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Accounting, Policy [Policy Text Block] Interim financial statementsWe have prepared the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (US GAAP) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by US GAAP for complete financial statements. These condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments consisting of normal recurring accruals which, in the opinion of management, are necessary to present fairly our consolidated financial position, consolidated results of operations, consolidated statement of shareholders’ equity and consolidated cash flows for the periods and as of the dates presented. Our fiscal year ends on December 31. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022 was derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with our annual consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto. The nature of our business is such that the results of any interim period may not be indicative of the results to be expected for the entire year.
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Policy [Policy Text Block] Cash and cash equivalentsThe Company considers all bank deposits, including money market funds and other investments, purchased with an original maturity to the Company of three months or less, to be cash and cash equivalents. The carrying amount of our cash equivalents approximates fair value due to the short maturity of the investments.
Concentration Risk, Credit Risk, Policy [Policy Text Block] Concentration of credit riskFinancial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company maintains its cash balances primarily with two financial institutions. These balances generally exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk in cash and cash equivalents. The Company believes that the credit risk related to marketable securities is limited due to the adherence to an investment policy focused on the preservation of principal.
Marketable Securities, Policy [Policy Text Block] Marketable securitiesThe Company’s marketable securities typically consist of obligations of the United States government and its agencies, bank certificates of deposit and/or investment grade corporate obligations, which are classified as available-for-sale and included in current assets. All marketable securities mature within 12 months from their date of purchase and generally are intended to fund current operations. Securities are valued based on market prices for similar assets using third party certified pricing sources. Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value. The amortized cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization or accretion is included in interest income. Realized gains and losses, if any, are calculated on the specific identification method and are included in other income in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.We conduct periodic reviews to identify and evaluate each available-for-sale debt securities that are in an unrealized loss position in order to determine whether an other-than-temporary impairment exists. An unrealized loss exists when the current fair value of an individual security is less than its amortized cost basis. Declines in fair value considered to be temporary and caused by noncredit-related factors, are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss, which is a separate component of shareholders’ equity. Declines in fair value that are other than temporary or caused by credit-related factors, are recorded within earnings as an impairment loss. There were no other-than-temporary unrealized losses as of March 31, 2023.
Fair Value Measurement, Policy [Policy Text Block] Fair value measurementsUnder the authoritative guidance for fair value measurements, fair value is defined as the exit price, or the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants as of the measurement date. The authoritative guidance also establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the factors market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability developed based upon the best information available in the circumstances. The categorization of financial assets and financial liabilities within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.The hierarchy is broken down into three levels defined as follows:Level 1 Inputs — quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilitiesLevel 2 Inputs — observable inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilitiesLevel 3 Inputs — unobservable inputsAs of March 31, 2023, the Company believes that the carrying amounts of its other financial instruments, including amounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. See Note 4, titled “Marketable Securities” for additional information.
Patent Costs [Policy Text Block] Patent costsCosts associated with applying for, prosecuting and maintaining patents are expensed as incurred given the uncertainty of patent approval and, if approved, the resulting probable future economic benefit to the Company. Patent-related costs, consisting primarily of legal expenses and filing/maintenance fees, are included in general and administrative costs and were $38,000 and $64,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
New Accounting Pronouncements, Policy [Policy Text Block] Recently Adopted Accounting PronouncementsIn June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost. This ASU replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss model. It also eliminates the concept of other-than-temporary impairment and requires credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities to be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a reduction in the amortized cost basis of the securities. These changes will result in earlier recognition of credit losses. The standard was effective for smaller reporting companies in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 with early adoption permitted for all periods beginning after December 15, 2018. We adopted ASU No. 2016-13 on January 1, 2023, which did not have an impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.